The hydrological cycle in Namibia indicates that of the rainfall received, 83% is evaporated, 14% is lost through transpiration, 2% is run off in the rivers and 1% seeps underground; which may later be extracted through boreholes for consumption. Namibia sources of water are: border rivers, dams on ephemeral rivers, ground water, fountains, seawater desalination and recycled water.
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Namibia has 5 perennial rivers and about 20 well defined ephemeral Rivers.
The perennial Rivers are:
- Orange River in the South
- Kunene River in the North
- Kavango River in the far North
- Zambezi in the far North
- Kwando (Linyanti/Chobe) River in the far North.
The Zambezi and Kwando Rivers flow into the Indian Ocean while Okavango River flows into the Okavango Delta.