The hydrological cycle in Namibia indicates that of the rainfall received, 83% is evaporated, 14% is lost through transpiration, 2% is run off in the rivers and 1% seeps underground; which may later be extracted through boreholes for consumption. Namibia sources of water are: border rivers, dams on ephemeral rivers, ground water, fountains, seawater desalination and recycled water.
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Namibia’s annual evaporation ranges from 2 600 mm in the North East to 3 700 mm in the central Southern area. Evaporation is highest during the months of October to December and dams in Namibia can lose between 20% and 85% of their water through evaporation within one season.